HFC alternatives continue to expand: A new HFC alternative was recently announced byAsahi Glass Company (ASC). The new refrigerant, AMOLEA™, is a near drop-in replacement for hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-22 (AR5 GWP100 yr =1760) being phased out under the Montreal Protocol and for HFC-410a being phased down by the European Union and Japan and proposed for phase-down globally under the Montreal Protocol. Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

Y. Xu and D. Zaelke, "Unpacking the Problem" (2013)

INECE: Compliance Strategies to Deliver Climate Benefits

INECE: Enforcement Strategies for Combating the Illegal Trade in HCFCs and Methyl Bromide

D. Zaelke speaks on the Hill at EESI and UNEP Briefing "Fast-Action Climate Mitigation: A Focus on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants"

D. Grabiel Presentation at Stockholm Group Meeting, Bangkok, 24 June 2013, Could a Global HFC Phase-Down Catalyze an Energy Efficiency Revolution?

S. Andersen, M. Halberstadt, N. Borgford-Parnell, Stratospheric Ozone, Global Warming, and the Principle of Unintended Consequences — An Ongoing Science and Policy Success Story

Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences—An ongoing science and policy success story

S. Andersen, IGSD Director of Research, discusses effective and cost efficient steps towards phasing out HFCs post-US/China agreement in his Op-Ed China and the United States Pledge to Use the Strengths of the Montreal Protocol to Phase-Down HFCs

D. Zaelke discusses HFCs on Minnesota Public Radio's The Daily Circuit Climate Cast

Larger view

M. Molina and D. Zaelke," A Climate Success Story to Build On"

The Montreal Protocol article appeared in the OzoneAction Montreal Protocol 25th Anniversary Special Issue

D. Zaelke, S. Andersen, & N. Borgford- Parnell, Strengthening Ambition for Climate Mitigation: The Role of the Montreal Protocol in Reducing Short-lived Climate Pollutants

The Montreal Protocol article appeared in the Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, as part of a Special Issue on Mobilizing Climate Change Action Beyond the UNFCCC

Dr. Stephen O. Andersen Receives Ozone Award from Russian Federation, Never Before Given to Non-Citizen. Read more from IGSD's press release.

Former President Bill Clinton discusses the importance of SLCPs at the Rio+20 Summit at the launch of a joint project with C40 Cities and the Climate & Clean Air Coalition to Reduce SLCPs:

The Joint SLCP project with the C40 Cities and the CCAC is here.

The International Herald Tribune, Op-Ed by M. Molina & D. Zaelke, "A Climate Success Story to Build On"
(26 September 2012)

Information and Presentations from the CCAC "Workshop on Public Policies to Mitigate Environmental Impacts from Brick Production" can be found here.

President Durwood Zaelke on NPR's Diane Rehm Show with Elizabeth Rosenthal of The New York Times

Steve Yurek, Diane Rehm, Durwood Zalke (photo:

The Hill, Op-Ed by D. Zaelke & A. Light, “Rio meeting can still produce a key climate outcome” (20 June

The Hill, Op-Ed by M. Molina & D. Zaelke, "How to cut climate change in half" (14 February 2012)

President Durwood Zaelke on NPR's All Things Considered

An Indian street dweller prepares food on the streets of Kolkata. A growing number of scientists say that reducing black carbon — mostly soot from burning wood, charcoal and dung — would have an immediate and powerful impact on climate.

UNEP's "Our Planet: Powering Climate Solutions" with articles by Mario Molina, A.R. Ravishankara, and Durwood Zaelke; Romina Picolotti; and Veerabhadran
Ramanathan and Nithya
(Dec 2011)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: "Reducing abrupt climate chante risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions" (12 October 2009)

IGSD Fast-Action Films:

UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner highlights non-CO2 SLCPs:

Black carbon expert V. Ramanathan emphasizes importance of targeting non-CO2 SLCPs:

Nobel Laureate Mario Molina talks about need for action on fast half of climate change:

IGSD President Durwood Zaelke's testimony before the European Parliament

IGSD Documents

  • The Need for Speed: Reducing Short-Lived Climate Forcers & Perfecting Deliberate Carbon Removal Strategies to Complement CO2 Reductions (English, Chinese, French)
  • Why phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol? (Nov 2011)
  • Questions & Answers About Regulating Hydrofluorocarbons Under the Montreal Protocol (Nov 2011)

Top 10 Reasons for Addressing Non-CO2 Climate Forcers (Chinese version here)


Recent Publications

IGSD: "Primer on Hydrofluorocarbons" (March 2014)

IGSD: "Primer on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants" (November 2013)

Spanish version of the Primer (April 2013) is here.

The Primer is also available on the CCAC website here.


IGSD, NRDC and CEEW, "Maximinzing Energy Efficiency Gains When Transitioning to New MAC Refrigerants" (2014)


Cooling India with Less Warming: The Business Case for Phasing Down HFCs in Room and Vehicle Air Conditioners


Pontifical Academy of Sciences: "A comprehensive approach for reducing anthropogenic climate impacts including risk of abrupt climate changes" (2013)



UNEP Report: "The Montreal Protocol and The Green Economy" (2012)


UNEP and WMO's full 250 page "Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone" (2011)


Science: "Preserving Montreal Protocol Climate Benefits by Limiting HFCs" by Guus J. M. Velders, et al. (24 February 2012)


Science: "Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security" by Drew Shindell, et al. (13 January 2012)


UNEP Synthesis Report: "Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers" (25 Nov 2011)


UNEP Synthesis Report: "HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer" (November 2011)


UNEP and WMO's "Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers" (June 2011)


"Fate of Mountain Glaciers in the Anthropocene", a report by the working group commissioned by the Vatican (11 May 2011)



UNEP OzonAction's December 2011 Special Issue "Tipping the Balance" with an article by Steve Andersen and Kristen Taddonio


View archived news

View additional SLCP Press Coverage

World On Pace to Hit 4.8ºC by End of Century, Says UN Scientific Panel

Fast actions to cut short-lived climate pollutants can help, along with expanding renewable energy, other measures

Washington, DC, 14 April 2014 – Global greenhouse gas emissions increased by the equivalent of ten billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) between 2000 and 2010, according to a new report released this week by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and half of all human CO2 emissions between 1750 and 2010 have occurred in the last forty years.  Without additional efforts to significantly cut emissions, global temperatures could hit a staggering 4.8C above preindustrial temperatures by the end of the century, with potentially disastrous consequences for humanity, ecosystems, and sustainable development.

“Cutting short-lived climate pollutants could cut the current rate of climate change in half by 2050, while preventing more than 2.4 million air-pollution related deaths a year, and avoiding around 35 million tonnes of crop losses annually.” stated Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. “Cutting SLCPs is one of the best ways to reduce impacts over the next 50 years and beyond.”Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

Climate Change Will Be Overwhelming and Ubiquitous

Updates in latest IPCC report are more certain and more devastating

Washington, DC, 31 March 2014 – Widespread climate change impacts have already begun and are expected to get worse, according to the latest report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) this weekend in Yokohamo, Japan.

"The IPCC report should supercharge efforts to cut HFCs and the other short-lived climate pollutants," said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. "Early success with the HFC amendment under the Montreal Protocol this year or in early 2015 will essentially eliminate one of the six main greenhouse gases, and provide powerful momentum for a successful COP 21 in Paris at the end of 2015.” Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

World Health Organization Confirms Air Pollution is World's Single Largest Preventable Health Risk

7 million deaths annually are linked to indoor and outdoor air pollution

Addressing air pollutants could save millions of lives & cut warming in half by 2030

Washington, DC, 25 March 2014 – One in eight deaths in 2012 is attributed to exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, according to new estimates released today by the World Health Organization (WHO).  According to the new WHO data, indoor particulate matter air pollution from the burning of solid fuels for heating and cooking caused 4.3 million deaths in 2012, and outdoor particulate matter air pollution caused an additional 3.7 million deaths globally.  Regionally, low- and middle-income countries in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific saw the highest number of air pollution deaths, with a total of 3.3 and 2.6 million deaths caused by indoor and outdoor particulate matter air pollution respectively.

“Reducing air pollution, including black carbon soot pollution, can save millions of lives a year, reduce crop losses significantly, and cut the rate of global warming in half and the rate of warming in the Arctic by two-thirds over the next few decades,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. “With this combination of benefits—healthier citizens, higher crop yields, and half the rate of climate change—reducing air pollutants should be a top priority for sustainable development and climate protection.” Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

Indian Experts Issue Declaration on Low GWP Alternatives for AC, Refrigeration, & Service Sector

An experts meeting with India’s business, government, air conditioning trade associations, and civil society leaders agreed on a broad set of principles and recommendations for a well-charted transition of the Indian refrigerant, air-conditioning, and service industry called “Pune Declaration on Low Global Warming Potential Alternatives to Ozone Depleting Substances in India.” Key points of the discussions included ozone-safe, low-GWP, energy-efficient room air conditioning and mobile air conditioning.

IGSD, in collaboration with TERRE Policy Centre, organized the expert roundtable titled “Selecting and Best Service Practices for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Using Next-Generation Refrigerants for Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection” in Pune, India on 5 March 2014. The event was co-hosted by Mahratta Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Agriculture, and American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Pune Chapter. See the Pune Declaration here.

Climate Change a Growing “Threat Multiplier,” Says Pentagon

Washington, DC, 5 March - Climate change is a “threat multiplier” and a critical component of future defense strategy, according to the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review 2014 released March 4th. The 2014 QDR states that “Climate change poses another significant challenge for the United States and the world at large. As greenhouse gas emissions increase, sea levels are rising, average global temperatures are increasing, and severe weather patterns are accelerating. … These effects are threat multipliers that will aggravate stressors abroad such as poverty, environmental degradation, political instability, and social tensions – conditions that can enable terrorist activity and other forms of violence.”

The Pentagon is developing strategies to address climate threats through operational provisions, including altering the type of support the defense forces may be called upon to provide to civil authorities. “Secretary Hagel and his team are climate realists, with a sophisticated understanding of the future our defense forces will face as climate impacts continue to increase,” said IGSD President Durwood Zaelke. “This is global leadership at its finest.”

The 2014 QDR notes that “Climate change also creates both a need and an opportunity for nations to work together, whichthe Department will seize through a range of initiatives.” The Pentagon’s 2014 QDR also recognizes the need to ensure all military installations are strengthened against rising sea levels and extreme weather events. Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

Arctic Darkening Two to Three Times Higher Than Previously Calculated

The loss of Arctic sea ice is reducing the Earth’s albedo, or reflectivity, by an amount considerably larger than previously estimated, according to researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.The darkening of the Arctic from melting sea-ice is adding two to three times more climate forcing to the region than previously reported, according to a study published in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.The Scripps study is the first to use direct satellite measurements rather than computer models to assess the decreasing albedo from the loss of sea ice. “Based on our results, the albedo forcing from Arctic sea ice retreat is quite large,” said Scripps climate scientists Ian Eisenman, “Averaged over the entire globe, it’s one-fourth as large as the direct radiative forcing from CO2 during the same period.”

 “This is a wakeup call for world leaders. The Arctic is a key regulator of global climate. Without fast action now, we risk losing all Arctic sea ice and its ability to reflect heat back to space. This will set off a feedback loop that accelerates the melting of the region’s permafrost and the release of still more climate-warming gases,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development. “This feedback loop is pushing us closer to one of the first tipping points that could cause irreversible climate damage.”

For additional information see: PNAS article; Scripps Institution of Oceanography press release

Obama Announces Plan to Tighten Large Truck Fuel Efficiency Standards

President Obama last week ordered the development of tough new fuel standards for the medium- and heavy-duty trucks as part of what aides say will be an increasingly muscular and unilateral campaign to tackle climate change through the use of the President’s executive power. The White House directed the EPA and Department of Transportation to develop the new rules by March 2016, with a draft due a year before that.The limits on truck tailpipe pollution would combine with previous rules requiring passenger cars and light trucks to nearly double their average fuel economy to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025.

“The US is showing the world that it is ‘walking the walk’ and not just ‘talking the talk’ and lecturing the rest of the world about what they need to do,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of theInstitute for Governance and Sustainable Development.

For more information see: White House Fact Sheet, NY Times

CACC Marks Two Years of Short-Lived Climate Pollution Reduction

The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CACC) — a partnership of 36countries and 44 NGOs, intergovernmental organizations, and the private sector to reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) — celebrates two years of fast progress towardtheir Triple Imperative – slowing climate change, improving human health, and improving food security. Due to their short atmospheric lifespan, rapid reductions in SLCPs (black carbon, methane, HFCs, and tropospheric ozone) provide rapid benefits. Helena Molin Valdes, head of the CACC Secretariat,stated “We can have quick gains if we act now, the solutions are all available – this is what the partners in the Coalition are focusing on." She addedthat future priorities include expanding into the health sector and increasing the engagement with the agriculture sector. The CACC will be studying non-HFC refrigerant alternatives, launching an air quality awareness campaign, supporting information sharing to identify best practices, and increasing access to financial support for SLCP reduction.

“The CACC is already working on plans for taking its strategies to the scale it needs to meet the bold challenge of cutting the rate of warming in half for the next 40 years, with the World Bank pledging billions of new dollars for their efforts,” stated Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development, one of CACC’s NGO members. “The Coalition is a rare climate success story.”

For further information see: AllAfrica article; CACC press release

EU Moves Toward Final Phasedown of HFCs

On 30 January the European Parliament’s Environment Committee approved a new law to phase down a group of super greenhouse gases called hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The F-gas vote follows two years of negotiations between the Parliament and Ministers that resulted in an agreement to reduce HFCs by nearly 80% of present levels by 2030. The text includes an aggressive schedule for phasing down HFCs, bans on certain categories of new refrigeration and air conditioning equipment containing HFCs, mandatory destruction of by-product emissions from the manufacture of f-gases including production of feedstocks, and provisions on containment and recovery. The new law is set for formal approval by the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers in March and is expected to come into force in 2015.

“With the EU ready to aggressively control HFCs, a global HFC phasedown under the Montreal Protocol is inevitable,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. “It’s also the biggest, fastest, and cheapest climate mitigation available to the world in the near term.” HFC are the fastest growing greenhouse gases in much of the world, increasing at a rate of 10-15% per year.

For more information see: RAC, EuropeanVoice

World Already Teetering on Tipping Points for Abrupt Climate Change

Report Calls for Early Warning Systems to Anticipate Changes

Cutting short-lived climate pollutants is most effective way to slow warming in near term

Washington, DC, 4 December – The world is already beginning to pass tipping points for abrupt, catastrophic, and irreversible changes to the global climate according to a new 200-page report released yesterday by the US National Academy of Sciences.  Abrupt climate change, unlike gradual changes such as steadily increasing global temperatures, can cause rapid changes to physical, biological, and human systems in a matter of years or decades, far too fast for humans to properly adapt. The report found that some projected tipping points such as the melting of arctic permafrost, are unlikely to occur in this century, others such as the collapse of Arctic summer sea-ice are already underway and accelerating.  The report concludes that while large uncertainties still remain, the world is not doing enough to prepare and anticipate for these types of threats, and calls for more research and the development of an early warning system that could give humanity a few critical years to prepare for the worst impacts of abrupt climate change.

“This should be a wakeup call for the world,” stated Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development.  “No amount of continued warming can be considered safe when we have no idea when we’ll pass these thresholds for irreversible and abrupt climate change. The best way to slow down warming, particularly in the critically vulnerable Arctic is to cut black carbon soot and other short-lived climate pollutants, including methane, tropospheric ozone, and HFCs.” Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

Montreal Protocol Success Slowed Global Warming

Slow down in global warming linked to phase out of CFCs and methane reductions

Washington DC, 11 November, 2013 - Scientists using sophisticated statistical methods show in a paper in Nature Geoscience that the successful phase out of chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, by the Montreal Protocol slowed climate change, contributing to a lower rate of global warming since the early 1990s. The paper by Francisco Estrada and others analyzed temperature data, together with trends in emissions of greenhouse gases including CFCs, methane, and carbon dioxide. They identified other human causes of the pauses in warming, including reductions in methane emissions from changes in agricultural practices, the Great Depression, and World War I and II.

“The statistical analysis confirms that the Montreal Protocol is not only the world’s most successful environmental treaty, but also the most successful climate treaty,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development.  “The treaty not only solved the world’s first great threat to the global atmosphere—the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer—it also has solved a significant part of climate change, as the same chemicals that destroy the ozone layer are also powerful greenhouse gases.”

The Estrada paper concludes that “reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are effective in slowing the rate of warming in the short term.”  Read more from IGSD Press Release here.


Cutting Short-Lived Climate Pollutants Critical for Protecting Earth’s Snow and Ice-Covered Regions

Washington DC, 3 November 2013 – Cutting short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) can significantly reduce warming in vulnerable ice and snow covered areas of the world such as the Arctic and Himalayas, known as the cryosphere, while saving millions of lives and protecting ecosystems, according to a new scientific study released today.

The report by the World Bank and the International Climate Cryosphere Initiative calculates the impacts of climate change in cryosphere regions around the globe including the Arctic, Himalayas, Andes and East Africa, and describes which actions – in addition to cuts in carbon dioxide emissions – can slow these changes.  The cryosphere regions are warming at more than twice the global average rate, which increases melting and sea-level rise, and increases the risk of self-amplifying feedbacks that could trigger abrupt and catastrophic climate change.

“Fast cuts in CO2 emissions are necessary to stabilize long-term temperatures, but in the near term, we can cut the rate of climate change in half by cutting black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and HFC refrigerants. Reducing these climate pollutants is the only way to protect the world’s vulnerable people and places in the near term,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development.

By protecting glaciers and snow pack, SLCP reductions could cut the near-term projected decrease in the Amazon River flow by as much as half.  Cutting SLCPs could also prevent up to half a meter or more of sea-level rise by 2050, according to earlier research. Read more from IGSD Press Release here.

Nature Editorial says Cutting HFCs Under Montreal Protocol is Acid Test for Multilateralism

“Two years ago, Nature chided a handful of countries for blocking the path forwards [to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol], chiefly China, India and Brazil.  Today, we are left with one major holdout: India.  As the latest negotiations over the future of the Montreal Protocol wrapped up in Bangkok on 25 October, India found itself increasingly isolated, and rightly so..”

“The fact that India is on the losing side of this debate makes its renewed intransigence all the more galling.  But there is hope: after the September G20 meeting, Obama and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed to launch negotiations over the issue.”

“At stake in the Montreal Protocol talks is not just the future of one treaty, but also our legitimately shaken confidence in multilateralism.  If the world cannot agree on something as simple as this, what hope is there of meaningful cooperation on the difficult issues that lie ahead?” Read the Nature Editorial here.

Steady March Towards Action on Reducing HFCs Under Montreal Protocol

Led by African and small island states, nations near consensus on bringing HFCs into Ozone Treaty

Bangkok, 25 October 2013—The Parties to the Montreal Protocol continued their steady march towards phasing down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) under that treaty this week in Bangkok by reconvening the Discussion Group on HFC Management and broadening its mandate to consider the recent international agreements calling for the treaty to phase down HFCs, including the agreement by the G-20 nations and six observer states last month in St. Petersburg, Russia. Although India and Saudi Arabia blocked attempts to open formal discussions on two proposals to address HFCs—one by Micronesia, Morocco and the Maldives, the other by Canada, Mexico and the United States—the groundswell of support for using the Montreal Protocol to undertake the global phase down of HFCs called for in the Rio + 20 outcome last year and reiterated in recent high-level agreements continues to build.

“The writing is clearly on the wall,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. “A few countries are still trying to delay the final agreement, but it’s now clear this is a losing strategy and that the Montreal Protocol will be used to phase down HFCs.”

The 25th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol that took place in Bangkok this week comes one month after G-20 leaders announced support for initiatives that are complementary to efforts under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, including using the expertise and institutions of the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs, while retaining HFCs within the scope of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol for controlling emissions. Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here, and from Editorial in Nature here.

India Moves a Step Closer to Cutting HFCs Under Montreal Protocol

Agrees at White House Today to Immediately Convene Discussion

Accounting and Reporting Would Remain Under UNFCCC

Washington DC, 27 September 2013 - Today Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India took another step forward in climate protection by agreeing with President Obama that India would immediately convene discussions of phasing down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol.

"It's increasingly obvious that we need to cut HFCs under the Montreal Protocol," said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. "It's the biggest, fastest, and cheapest piece of climate mitigation available to the world today. Cutting HFCs can avoid up to 0.5°C in global warming by the end of the century."

The relevant paragraph from the joint statement from President Obama and Prime Minister Singh follows:

"The two leaders agreed to immediately convene the India-U.S. Task Force on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) to discuss, inter alia, multilateral approaches that include using the expertise and the institutions of the Montreal Protocol to phase down the consumption and production of HFCs, based on economically-viable and technically feasible alternatives, and include HFCs within the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol for accounting and reporting of emissions...." Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

G-20 Countries Join US and China to Support Phasing Down HFCs Under Montreal Protocol

US and China agree to launch formal negotiations on HFC phase-down under Montreal Protocol

Climate optimism resurrected by Obama, Xi, other G20 Leaders

St. Petersburg, 6 September 2013 - Today President Obama negotiated two separate agreements, one with the G-20 and one with China, to phase down the super greenhouse gasses called hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The G-20 Leaders Declaration announced support for initiatives that are complementary to efforts under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, including using the expertise and institutions of the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of HFCs.

“The G-20 agreement leaves little if any opposition to the HFC amendment,” stated IGSD President Durwood Zaelke. "This is the biggest climate prize available to the world in the next few years, providing mitigation equivalent to 100 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide by 2050 and avoiding up to nearly 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.5 Celsius) in warming by 2100. It also will help build the momentum we need to negotiate a strong climate treaty in 2015 to go into effect in 2020,” added Zaelke. “Climate optimism was resurrected today by President Obama, President Xi, and the other G-20 leaders.”

The announcement comes on the heels of an agreement reached earlier in the day between the U.S. and China to open formal negotiations on the details of the amendment to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol. The agreement took place on the margins of the G-20 Summit and builds on an earlier agreement between President Xi Jinping and President Obama. Read more from IGSD’s Press Release here.

Obama gains allies for de-funding coal plants, expanding cuts in short-lived pollutants

Montreal Protocol Endorsed for Fast Climate Mitigation

Vice President Biden Keeps HFCs at Top of US Geopolitical Agenda During India Visit

Damage from Methane Release by Arctic Permafrost Could Cost $60 Trillion

Wildfires Causing Melting in Low-Lying Himalayan Glaciers

The US-China Agree to Further Climate Protection

Phasing Down HFCs Under Montreal Protocol Can Cut Climate Pollution Twice Over

Sea Change in Support for Reducing HFCs Under Montreal Protocol

Fast Action to Cut HFCs Avoids Up to 0.5°C of Warming by End of Century

President Promotes Fast Action on HFCs and Methane

US and China Agree to Use Montreal Protocol to Cut Super Greenhouse Gases

Black Carbon Cut 90% in California Model for Polluted Mega Cities of the World

HFCs, Other SLCPs Gaining Traction in Climate Talks

Climate Change the Most Serious Threat to Arctic Biodiversity

Arctic Council Calls for HFC Phase Down under Montreal Protocol

Super Pollutant Reduction Act Introduced in Congress

China, Montreal Protocol Team Up to Eliminate Equivalent of 8 Billion Tonnes of CO2

Micronesia, Morocco Seek Fast HFC Reductions to Slow Sea-Level Rise, Other Climate Impacts

Reducing Air Pollution, Chemical Coolants Can Quickly Cut Sea-Level Rise

Climate Impacts Could Reverse Decades of Progress Reducing Poverty

U.S. NGOs Call for Task Force to Combat Short-Lived Climate Pollutant

Air Pollution, Among Top Global Killers, Is Critical Climate Target

Reducing Black Carbon, HFCs, Methane Key to Protecting Arctic in Near-Term, Say Arctic Ministers

Comprehensive Four-Year Study Finds Black Carbon Second Biggest Climate Pollutant Behind Carbon Dioxide

Going Beyond Carbon Dioxide: New York Times Op-Ed by Zaelke & Ramanathan

Permafrost Thawing to Cause Additional Global Warming

Alarming Growth of Climate Emissions Says UNEP, But No Reason to Write Off 2°C Target Yet

A 4°C World Will Be Devastating But Can Be Avoided

A Climate Success Story to Build On

Additional IGSD Press Releases